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White-tailed Sea-eagle

White-tailed eagles are apex predators. Therefore, they tend to experience bioaccumulation from environmental pollutants that are present in their prey, and also suffered intensive persecution by shepherds and gamekeepers who considered them (usually wrongly) to be a threat to their livestock and gamebirds. During the period 1800-1970, white-tailed eagles in most of Europe underwent dramatic declines and became extinct in many regions of western, central, and southern Europe. While Norway, Germany, Poland, and Iceland harboured the largest surviving populations, pockets of reproducing pairs remaine Intense conservation actions throughout much of the remaining European distribution range (legal protection to decrease hunting, protection of breeding sites, and winter feeding) led to a recovery of many local populations. Since the 1980s, the European white-tailed eagle population has recovered steadily, and is spreading back westward. It has today recolonised several traditional breeding areas in Europe and the recovery is still on-going, assisted in Ireland and the United Kingdom by reintroduction schemes.

Jan 26, 2015


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Camera Model PENTAX K-3
Image Date
Focal Length 420 mm (35mm format equiv.: 630 mm)
Aperture f/6.3
Exposure Time 0.0025 sec. (1/400)
ISO 200
Exposure Bias 1.3
Metering Mode CenterWeightedAverage
Exposure Program Not defined
Exposure Mode Manual exposure
White Balance Auto white balance
Flash Flash did not fire, compulsory flash mode
Colour Space sRGB
Software Adobe Photoshop CS6 (Windows)
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